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mitral valve prolapse
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Mitral Valve Prolapse
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Related terms: MVP, disease of the mitral valve

What causes mitral valve prolapse?

Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is among the most common heart conditions, but it remains something of a puzzle. Although MVP affects about 2% of the population, the cause is unknown. MVP often occurs in people who have no other heart problems, and the condition may be inherited.

Diagram showing the mtral valve controls blood flow from the left atrium into the left venticle.The mitral valve is located in the heart between the upper-left chamber (the left atrium) and the lower-left chamber (the left ventricle). The mitral valve consists of two flaps called leaflets.

Normally, the leaflets open and shut in coordinated fashion to allow blood to flow in one direction—from the atrium to the ventricle. The left ventricle is the heart's main pumping chamber and pushes oxygen-rich blood into the arteries, which carry the blood throughout the body.

But in patients with MVP, one or both of the leaflets are enlarged, and the leaflets' supporting muscles are too long. Instead of closing evenly, one or both of the leaflets collapse or bulge into the atrium, sometimes allowing small amounts of blood to flow back into the atrium. By listening to your heart with a stethoscope, your doctor may hear a "clicking" sound caused by the flapping of the leaflets.

What are the risks of MVP?

Sometimes, MVP leads to a condition known as mitral regurgitation or mitral insufficiency. This means a large amount of blood is leaking backward through the defective valve. Mitral regurgitation can lead to the thickening or enlargement of the heart wall, caused by the extra pumping the heart must do to make up for the backflow of blood. It sometimes causes people to feel tired or short of breath. Mitral regurgitation can usually be treated with medicines, but some people need surgery to repair or replace the defective valve.

How is MVP treated?

Most of the time, MVP is not a serious condition, even though some patients report palpitations or sharp chest pains. Most patients do not need treatment. Doctors used to recommend that some patients with MVP take antibiotics before dental procedures or general surgery. Antibiotics can prevent an infection of the lining of the heart called bacterial endocarditis (BE). But now, the American Heart Association (AHA) no longer recommends antibiotics before dental procedures or general surgery, except for patients who are at greatest risk of BE. According to the AHA, you are at greatest risk of BE if you have a prosthetic heart valve, you have had BE before, or you have a certain type of congenital heart disease. If you have MVP, it may still be best to let your doctor know if you are going to have dental or general surgery, then he or she can decide if antibiotics are appropriate for your situation. 

MVP should not stop a person from living a productive life, but it should be monitored regularly by a doctor.

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Mitral Valve Prolapse

PubMed Health 
Mitral Valve Prolapse

Updated October 2013
Texas Heart Institute Heart Information Center
Through this community outreach program, staff members of the Texas Heart Institute (THI) provide educational information related to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cardiovascular disease. It is not the intention of THI to provide specific medical advice, but rather to provide users with information to better understand their health and their diagnosed disorders. Specific medical advice will not be provided and THI urges you to visit a qualified physician for diagnosis and for answers to your questions.
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